Thursday, 15 November 2018

And so to bed...

And so to bed... my regular collection of quotes, this week on the subject of November!













And so to bed... quote for Bonfire night from Thomas Hardy

To light a fire is the instinctive and resistant act of men when, at the winter ingress, the curfew is sounded throughout Nature. It indicates a spontaneous, Promethean rebelliousness against the fiat that this recurrent season shall bring foul times, cold darkness, misery, and death. Black chaos comes, and the fettered gods of the earth say, Let there be light.













And so to bed... quote for tonight is from Emily Dickinson:

It is also November. The noons are more laconic and the sunsets sterner, and Gibraltar lights make the village foreign. November always seemed to me the Norway of the year. ------ is still with the sister who put her child in an ice nest last Monday forenoon. The redoubtable God! I notice where Death has been introduced, he frequently calls, making it desirable to forestall his advances.”















And so to bed.... quote for tonight is from James Hilton:

For London, Blampied claimed, was of all cities in the world the most autumnal —its mellow brickwork harmonizing with fallen leaves and October sunsets, just as the etched grays of November composed themselves with the light and shade of Portland stone. There was a charm, a deathless charm, about a city whose inhabitants went about muttering, "The nights are drawing in," as if it were a spell to invoke the vast, sprawling creature-comfort of winter.”














And so to bed... quote for tonight is from Alexander L. Fraser:

Fear not November's challenge bold—
We've books and friends,
And hearths that never can grow cold:
These make amends!














And so to bed... quote for tonight is from R.H. Stoddard's "November":

A barren realm of withered fields,
Bleak woods, and falling leaves,
The palest morns that ever dawned;
The dreariest of eves.
It is no wonder that she comes,
Poor month! with tears of pain;
For what can one so hopeless do
But weep, and weep again.














And so to bed... quote for tonight is from Richard Henry Stoddard,:

The wild November come at last
Beneath a veil of rain;
The night wind blows its folds aside,
Her face is full of pain.
The latest of her race, she takes
The Autumn's vacant throne:
She has but one short moon to live,
And she must live alone.

Wednesday, 14 November 2018

Sark: A Failed State?

Sark: A Failed State? 

The problems in Sark can be traced back to at last as far ago as 2013. As BBC News Reported:

“A move to appoint a full-time civil servant in Sark has been lost by a 13-14 vote in Chief Pleas. The General Purposes and Advisory Committee called for the post to reduce the workload of politicians. The move was also suggested by Colin Kniveton, who was hired for four months to refine the recommendations made in an independent review of government. Some also said the cost, with a salary of £35,000 to £45,000 plus expenses, was too high. The move to create a small civil service was first recommended in the independent review of Sark's government carried out by Belinda Crowe, a former UK senior civil servant.”

“Conseiller Charles Maitland, the chairman of the committee, said: ‘Despite that we usually run at quite a considerable surplus in Sark you only have to mention spending money and everyone gets really alarmed. Somebody who knew what they were doing coming in to help us run Sark would actually pay for themselves quickly.’ He said: ‘I think the island desperately needs to begin the process of reform.’”

In 2014, matters worsened, when four of the six hotels were closed. An announcement was made that 
“The four Sark hotels owned by the Barclay brothers will stay closed next year due to a lack of visitors.”

As BBC News reported in 2015:

“The Aval du Creux and Petit Champ have been closed since the start of 2014, while Dixcart Bay and La Moinerie closed ahead of the 2015 season. The closures were blamed on the lack of a customs post on Sark denying it access to the French tourism market.”

In 2017, the Barclay Brothers vineyards closed, “Sark Vineyards says it has invested millions in the project since 2010 - but claims it is being "attacked" by an alcohol production tax.”

As BBC News reported:

"The decision of 5 October 2016 to introduce taxation of alcohol production itself, amounting to a tax on one industry only on Sark, severely undermines the future financial viability of the business,"

In 2018, a technical problem with the ferry services meant further woes. As Bailiwick Express noted:

“Sark Chamber of Commerce has said it is concerned about the recent ‘multiple cancellations of the ferry link from France/Jersey provided by Manche Iles.’ The statement released by the Chamber of Commerce said people wanting to visit Sark are being treated as a lesser priority than those wanting to travel between Guernsey and Jersey.”

"We are currently running at 5-6% below last year's numbers on passengers from Guernsey. Our very fragile visitor economy cannot sustain losing the passenger numbers from France/Jerseyt without businesses suffering greatly.”

"One of our major hotels has suffered many thousands of pounds in cancellations and subsequent late arrivals. Guest houses and self catering establishments have also suffered revenue starving cancellations.”

Lower numbers meant the benefits of scale of numbers for the economy suffered, and electricity prices went up. These were referred to Anthony White, the Sark Electricity Price Control Commissioner who said:

“On 21 May 2018 I made a Determination under the 2016 Law that the price of 66p/kWh charged by Sark Electricity Limited to its customers was not “fair and reasonable”. This price is in fact, as far as I have been able to discover, one of the highest in the world charged by any electricity supply company.”

“On 3 August 2018, I went on to make a Price Control Order under the 2016 Law, requiring a two stage reduction in the prices charged by Sark Electricity Limited. The company has made two unsuccessful applications to the Court for an interim ruling against these decisions, and currently has brought an Appeal and judicial review which is due to be heard by the Seneschal Court sitting in Guernsey in December.”

“If this Appeal goes ahead, it will consider whether the decisions taken were reasonable and justified; whether the impacts on Sark Electricity Limited taken together with its holding company Sark Electricity Holdings Limited are as stated; and whether the company has considered other options in the way that it operates and charges for electricity from its diesel generators.”

But Sark Electricity has been losing money, and stated in October:

“October 2018: We have received a report from our independent auditors that shows that the 52p price forced on us by the Electricity Price Control commissioner will result in the company running at a loss in excess of £20,000 per month. We cannot withstand this for long, nor can we afford the £250,000 estimated for the legal appeal, we have applied to the government for a £250,000 grant to fund the legal appeal.”

And they did not mince words:

“You do not honestly think that after Sark lost 40 percent of its population and SEL lost the identical 40 percent of its revenue, that your appointee should cut our revenue an additional 21 percent as though we alone should carry the burden of the economic disaster that has enveloped Sark?”

It would be interesting to know where they got their statistics from, and how much the population has declined over the last 4 years since the hotels started closing. Obviously the closure of hotels and vineyards, as well as reducing numbers of islanders, would also have a knock on effect on the general economy.

The company has said it will cease to supply electricity after the end of November unless something is done. It reported a financial loss of £80,000 over the past four months.

The Island’s Chamber of Commerce says Chief Pleas (the Government) has ‘bullied’ Sark Electricity ‘to its knees’ in order to take over: “‘The misuse of power in order to nationalise a utility company sends a worrying message to existing and potential businesses alike and we call upon our government to halt this divisive behaviour and properly and fairly resolve their issues with the company.”’

Some kind of nationalisation is what looks like happening. As BBC News reports:

“Guernsey's government will power Sark should the island's electricity be cut off next month, a politician has said. Sark Electricity - which powers about 300 properties - maintains it will close after initial negotiations to save the cash-strapped firm failed. The utility company was offered to Sark's government for a nominal sum, thought to be £1, yesterday. Chief Pleas rejected the offer, with both parties now welcoming possible assistance from Guernsey.”

But are the Islanders of Guernsey prepared to subsidise electricity costs for Sark? And what else is happening on Sark? According to Bailiwick Express:

“The next Chief Pleas election which is due to be held next month is likely to see no one standing again, after the previous elections, due to be held earlier this year, had to be postponed for the same reason.”

Meanwhile, as the JEP reports;

“Lord Keen sent the letter to Sark’s government and Guernsey’s Lieutenant-Governor Vice-Admiral Sir Ian Corder following the island’s failure last month to pass a Budget. The collapse of the planned tax and spending plan led to the resignation of the island’s Finance and Resources Committee and its only civil servant.”

He said: ‘It has been six years since a properly contested election in Sark. In light of the many significant challenges facing the island, it is now a matter of urgency that your forthcoming elections deliver a strong mandate to government going forward.’

The next general election is due to take place on Wednesday 12 December.

Tuesday, 13 November 2018

Radio reviews: 1963



Drama on 3: 1963

What unites the Profumo affair (sex, a Russian spy and the secretary of state for war), the Great Train Robbery (£2.6 million taken from a Glasgow to London Royal Mail train) and the assassination of John F Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States?

They all took place in 1963, the same year in which writer Peter Flannery passed the 11+ and his friend next door took his life. 1963 was a pivotal year that changed the world. Peter Flannery re-visits his 11 year old self and remembers the year the world looked on in amazement while failing to notice the death of his friend and his triumph in his 11 Plus.

A new half hour drama for BBC Radio 3 by Peter Flannery, recorded in front of a live audience at the Edinburgh Festival.

Narrator: Andy Clark
Young Peter: Curtis Appleby
Bernard: Ross Waiton
Grandmother and Mother: Jill Dellow
Peter: Micheal Ajao
Writer: Peter Flannery
Director: Melanie Harris
Sound Designer: Eloise Whitmore
Exec Producer: Eloise Whitmore

Comment:

This is a brilliant play evoking the way in which world events impinged on a backwater of 1963, and a boy growing up, as much concerned with the 11 plus as the nation and world news, and not quite understanding his neighbour and friend, who clearly is gay, and has a gay friend, but the young boy just can’t see it. .

There’s also a lot of humour about confessions to a priest and a certain famous photograph of Christine Keeler sitting on a chair which “arouses” the young boy, and when he is trying to overhear what has happened on a bus, but only catching fragments of conversation – it was Kennedy’s death, which he had completely missed!

The narrator is older and wiser, and provides a nice contrast as he looks back at his naive younger self, and all that teenage angst. What I particularly liked was the evocation of time and place, and the fears of failing the 11 plus, which the young boy sees as consigning himself to the scrap heap. Of course, despite his fears, he passes. Curtis Appleby is quite brilliant at evoking the unsophisticated but clever young Peter.



Monday, 12 November 2018

Fireworks Petition














https://petitions.gov.je/petitions/200151

Only allow fireworks to be sold or supplied in Jersey for licensed displays


Every November fireworks are freely available, and are set off in the streets much to the serious distress of dogs and other family pets, there is equally a risk of personal injury and damage to property.


Firework displays are enjoyed by thousands of people throughout the year during a variety of celebrations. There can be no real need or benefit in the use and sale of ‘domestic’ fireworks which in reality cause more distress and danger than they do enjoyment.

That’s Andy Jones petition, and he has a point. Totally signed – I agree. 

 Martin (my autistic son) - rather like dogs – used to go mad when fireworks went off - often outside of the 5th of November in the week before or after – he’d self-harm and bang his head against a wall. I remember ringing round – Deputy, Constable, Senator – and they all pushed me to someone else. The Senator (who had just been elected from being a St B Deputy) told me it was a matter for Deputies (whose ranks he had left) as it was a Parish matter!!

He lost two votes that night at the next election. The Deputies told me to contact the Constable. The Constable told me to contact Home Affairs Deputy Layzell, and he said he couldn’t do anything because it was all resting with the Constables. And Social Services were closed as it was after 5 so there was no Special Needs Social worker to help a young but very strong teenager lashing out at anyone near him or trying to bash his brains out.

Let's face it. It just can’t be regulated or policed properly with private sales. There’s no use having regulations if they can’t be policed.

A correspondent writes:
"This year we have had to endure fireworks over 5 nights - most of which have been private ‘displays’. They started Friday last and continued every night till Tuesday even though officially Bonfire Night was Monday. I note there are two more scheduled for this coming weekend too - organised events as they may be."

"Clearly this has upset many pet owners for whom I have some sympathy - our cat was skittish and certainly was troubled by the louder bangs."

"But just as concerning was the incident on Clos des Sables when a lighted firework was pushed through the door of a house - and over the grapevine I hear that in several parts of the island (including St. Brelade) fireworks were being lobbed into the path of cars by youngsters - juveniles. Little has emerged in the media about that, but that perhaps is understandable as this sort of behaviour gives others ideas - and right now we can be certain that ther are quite a few fireworks around yet to be ‘let off’." 

"The fact that juveniles are getting hold of fireworks despite the law which restricts purchase to adults (over 18’s) is another reason why sales should be retsricted to licensed and regulated organisers of displays. As it is, those suppliers of fireworks who are commissioned for either public or private displays, are required by law to put a notice into the JEP to say when, where, at what time, approximate duration and for what purpose a display is to take place. No such requirement is made of anyone else."

Fireworks not set off, because of bad weather, are often stockpiled for later – for instance New Year’s Eve where there are often some bangs going off.

Time to call a stop to all but organised professional displays!


Not surprisingly - I blogged on it four times!

A few extracts below.

http://tonymusings.blogspot.com/2009/10/fireworks.html

There seems to be no way of easily policing these mavericks, as a firework can easily be set off anywhere, the point of origin difficult to trace, and the instigator long gone before any authorities arrive. If the indiscriminate use of fireworks after sale cannot be policed properly, then the sensible option would be to restrict the period of sales.

I think that it is about time fireworks were regulated to proper Parish displays and commercial users, rather than anyone. I find it incredible that you need a licence to have a firearm, yet anyone over 18 can just walk into a shop, and buy high explosive materials, from which - with the use of the internet - it is very easy to create bombs. I cannot see any logic in that at all.

https://tonymusings.blogspot.com/2009/11/fireworks.html

BBC News: A car was hit by a firework thrown from another car on a Jersey road, according to police. The incident happened at 2130 GMT on Tuesday on Victoria Avenue, St Helier. Officers said they had two separate calls about it, and the police had since spoken to and given "words of advice" to the driver. Following two other incidents where lit fireworks were put through letterboxes, police in the island are warning people to use them in a responsible manner.

I think it is time that fireworks were restricted - like firearms - to people with proper training. You need a licence to have a gun, but everyone over 18 can just go out and but fireworks - surely a recipe for a tragedy.

It is not a question of a "nanny state" but of reasonable safety. Once anyone could get in a car and drive. Now we have to pass a driving test, because driving a car if not trained can be extremely dangerous. If I own a gun, I need a gun licence. And yet anyone can buy and set off these explosives!

http://tonymusings.blogspot.com/2010/11/danger-of-private-fireworks.html


Incidents in the UK that are most dangerous come when fireworks are put through letterboxes. I know of only one case of that happening, back in the 1980s, when some bangers were pushed through the letterbox of a bungalow, inside which were a family of four. The father went out, caught the culprits, and allegedly literally banged their heads together, which is why the incident was not reported to the police. I wouldn't advise anyone to take their law into their own hands like that, but I did sympathise with his actions.

In Newcastle, there has been a spate of incidents, one involving a letterbox. The police caught a 16 year old with fireworks, and it does raise the question that, like drinking and smoking, it may be perfectly possible for younger teenagers to get hold of fireworks, despite strict laws on what can be sold. Someone older than 18 may legitimately buy fireworks, and sell them for a profit to youngsters, just as with drink or cigarettes, or the shop keeper may not exercise as much diligence in asking for proof of age as they should.

http://tonymusings.blogspot.com/2014/11/remember-remember-fireworks-are.html

Now I have no problems with fireworks in organised displays, because they have set times. What I object to is the random setting off fireworks by individuals from now for at least a month, sometimes even longer if they have the odd firework left over to set off New Year’s Eve. And there is a lot of that about.

Data collected across Britain in previous years shows that, on average, around 1,000 people visit A&E for treatment of a firework-related injury in the four weeks around Bonfire Night, with half of the injuries being suffered by under-18s.

Sunday, 11 November 2018

‘Paris, November 11th, 1918’ by May Wedderburn Cannan















Armistice, a day of rejoicing at the end of the war. But not for all.

May Cannan, in Paris, describes it here:

“The Pension produced some champagne at dinner and we drank the loyal toast. And then across the table G. lifted her glass to me and said “Absent.” I did not know her story nor she mine, but I drank to my friends who were dead and to my friends who, wounded, imprisoned, battered, shaken, exhausted, were alive in a new, and a terrible world.”

As Grace Freeman notes

"Born in 1893, May Wedderburn Cannan was the daughter of Charles Cannan, Dean of Trinity College, and the head of the Oxford University Press (OUP) until his death after the end of the war. Raised in and surrounded by a world of literary influence, May had her first poem printed in The Scotsman at the age of 15. By the time of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, she had two published anthologies: In War Time (1917) and The Splendid Days (1919); these would be followed by a third, The House of Hope, in 1923."

"Like so many other female poets who were writing at the time, May’s voice is, wrongfully, not as strongly heard as the bellows of soldier-poets. She writes with a quiet, lyrical confidence, offering a moving and authentic insight into her own personal wartime experiences, away from the heart of the combat. In the spring of 1915, May was posted to Rouen, which sits on the banks of the Seine. "

"In 1918, she returned to France to work in the Espionage Department of the War Office in Paris. In ‘Paris, November 11, 1918’, a poem which is dedicated to an unknown ‘G.A.H.’, she diarises her recollection of that day, remembering the exhausting and unsatisfying arrival of the Armistice, drawing us close into the immediate aftermath of a new and broken world, and sharing the confusion and the heartbreak of the home front."

Paris, November 11th, 1918

Down on the boulevards the crowds went by,
The shouting and the singing died away,
And in the quiet we rose to drink the toasts,
Our hearts uplifted to the hour, the Day:
The King – the Army – Navy – the Allies –
England – and Victory.
And then you turned to me and with low voice
(The tables were abuzz with revelry),
‘I have a toast for you and me,’ you said,
And whispered ‘Absent,’ and we drank
Our unforgotten Dead.
But I saw Love go lonely down the years
And when I drank, the wine was salt with tears.

References
https://www.historyanswers.co.uk/history-of-war/may-wedderburn-cannan-the-forgotten-female-poet-of-world-war-i/

Saturday, 10 November 2018

Armistice














My Saturday poem this year reflects on the ending of the Great War, this Sunday, one hundred years ago, and the human cost.

Armistice

All is quiet, all is calm, all at peace. It is over.
Troop ships sail to White Cliffs of Dover;
And on the minute, on the hour, on the day,
There will be an ending today, so they say;
Battle weary, fatigued, it is time to rest :
Remember the dead, those we now blessed ;
Broken bones, broken bodies, broken minds,
Lungs diseased, broken by the gas that blinds;
Empty villages, up and down in every land :
Memorial services wearing a black armband ;
The cold wind blew, the gale force came:
So many lives lost, so many death did claim;
Like leaves falling from trees, one by one,
Falling beneath the bullets of machine gun;
They never grew old, they fought and died:
In grief widows weep, in grief they abide ;
November was bleak in nineteen eighteen,
With fragments of people, missing, unseen;
An unknown soldier, as so many unshriven,
But resentments remained, yet unforgiven;
The seeds of war were sown in the peace:
War comes once more, war does not cease.
Always for young men, not generals with maps:
And can there be peace, a final perhaps?
Who can see, who can tell, in winter’s cold chill,
And after the war, when so many fell ill?
War torn and weary, and prey to disease:
Gale force comes from the mildest of breeze;
So we stand, and we wait, in wind and in rain,
And we pray, and we pray, that never again
Will there be death and glory, war ever more;
The white cliffs of Dover, and reaching the shore,
Limbs lost, maimed, mutilated, those that survived ,
And coffins arrive, of the dead, of the shrived,
Blown up in a landmine, or killed by a gun,
Wives lost their husbands, and parents a son;
Remember them all, remember the grief,
Remember the lives, so short and so brief;
Lay down the wreath, as they laid down their life,.
And pray for a better world, and one without strife.

Friday, 9 November 2018

Jersey in the Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))














A one off this week, a bit of Jersey described in 1870! It's a brilliant snapshot with lots of fine detail, not just geographical places, and the broader sweep of history, but the minutia, so that we have, for example, a complete breakdown of the 1861 census - by occupation. We learn the principal exports and imports, the make up of agriculture, and all other smaller details - a mass of facts and figures which help draw a visible picture of Jersey. It is rather patronising, and not kind to Jerriais - "a barbarous tongue".

John Marius Wilson, Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales (1870-72))

JERSEY, the largest and most southerly of the Channel Islands. It lies on the bay of St. Michael, 14 miles W of the nearest part of the French coast, 17½ SE of Guernsey, and 99 SSW of Portsmouth.

Its form is irregularly quadrangular; its length, from E to W, is about 11½ miles; its greatest breadth is nearly 7 miles; its circuit, including sinuosities, is nearly 50 miles: and its area is 28, 717 acres.

Steamers ply regularly to it from Littlehampton, Southampton, Weymouth, and St. Malo; a submarine telegraph, laid in 1858, connects it and Guernsey with England; and coaches and omnibuses run in it, from St. Helier, to Millbrook, Beaumont, St. Aubin, St. Martin, St. Clement, Granville, Gorey, St. Peter, and St. Owen.

The steam boat route from it, at St. Helier, is about 30 miles to Guernsey, 42 to St. Malo, 95 to Weymouth, and 150 to Southampton.

Jersey is thought, by some writers, to have been originally called Augia. It is the Cæsarea of the Romans, the Augie of the Normans, and the Gearsey of the French. It has had political connexion with all public events, and been the theatre of most, affecting the Channel Islands.

These islands seem to have been a military station of the Romans. They were early occupied by the Gauls. They received many refugees from the Roman domination in England.

They accepted Christianity early in the 6th century, from Wales. They were ravaged, from 850 to 900, by the Northmen.

They were ceded by Charles IV. of France, in 912, to Rollo, first duke of Normandy. They continued to be held by William, the seventh duke, at his conquest of England. They were given by Richard I. to John, who eventually retained them alone of all Normandy.

They were invaded by the French in the times of Edward I., Edward III., and Henry IV. They were again invaded by the French, and actually taken through treachery, in the time of Henry VI.; but were recovered in that of Edward IV. They were once more partly retaken, and again recovered, in the time of Edward VI.

They were an asylum of many refugee Protestants, fleeing from England in the time of Mary. They were governed, and greatly benefited, by Sir Walter Raleigh, in the time of Elizabeth.

They took part with Charles I., and were a scene of operations, in the civil wars; but surrendered to the parliament, and were placed under the government of commissioners.

They were attacked, in 1779, by a French fleet with 5, 000 men; but were triumphantly defended by Wallace. They were again attacked, in 1781, by a French force of 1, 200, with night surprise of the lieutenant-governor, and capture of St. Helier; but were defended and recovered by the militia.

They look really, from their position, to belong to France as truly as the Isle of Wight belongs to England; nor do they possess any such natural fastnesses as could resist a vigorous attempt to seize them; and they owe their continued connexion with the British crown partly to their comparative insignificance, and partly to obstructions by rocks and currents around them. They were visited by Queen Victoria in 1846 and 1854..

Considerable remains of antiquity are in Jersey. Upwards of fifty cromlechs, here called poquelayes, are recorded by Poingdestre, who wrote in the early part of the 18th century, to have been seen by him on the island; but only three, near Mont-Orgueil, near Rozel, and near St. Owen, are known now to exist; and the first of these consists of nine stones supporting a flat one 3 feet thick, 10 feet broad, and 15 feet long.

Excavations were made, not long ago, at this cromlech, and resulted in the discovery of druidical implements, earthen vases, two stone coffins, and three human skeletons.

A druidical circle of 18 stones, now much mutilated, and supposed to have had in its centre a great altar, is on a cliff at Rozel bay.

A very large rocking stone, delicately poised, was near St. Saviour church; but has been destroyed.

Numerous Roman coins have been found in many parts of the island. Traces of a Roman camp are at Dulaiment; and an enormous earthen rampart is near Rozel.

Old castles are at Mont-Orgueil and Grosnez.

A large artificial mound, supposed to mark the grave of a valiant Norman knight in the time of Robert Duke of Normandy, is at La Hougue Bie or Prince's Tower, about the centre of the eastern half of the island; was crowned by an ancient chapel, now enlarged and surmounted by a modern tower; is a subject of romantic legend; and, owing to amenities which surround it, and to a splendid view which it commands, is a great attraction to strangers.

Several of the churches, particularly those of St. Brelade and St. Saviour, are old and interesting; and ruined chapels are at Grouville and Havre de Pas.

The antiquaries Falle and Morant, the lexicographer Lempriere, Dean Durel, Dr. Valpy, the Carterets, and Admirals Kempenfelt and SirHardy, were natives. Jersey gives the title of Earl to the Villierses of Osterley.

Till after the beginning of the present century, the people of the Channel Islands knew very little about England, and the people of England knew very little about the Channel Islands. The islanders were mainly farmers, a few fishermen, and still fewer traders; and, living under laws of their own, speaking a dialect of their own, and having no affairs to think of but their own, they knew and cared very little about any other worlds than the worlds of Jersey and Guernsey.

But the French revolution, and the war, or rather series of wars, ending with the battle of Waterloo, effected a considerable change. The first event sent a large number of French refugees into Jersey, who brought money with them.

Then, during the busy and important period that followed the French revolution, more troops were in the islands, old fortifications were strengthened, new were built, Martello towers were set up, not only on the shores, but on rocks lying off the shores, and British money began to flow freely. Then did the little shopkeepers and traders of Jersey flourish.

The close of the war was regarded with apprehension, as likely to cut off the means by which the trade was sustained. But among the many military and naval officers who, when peace came, found their half-pay too limited for their support in expensive England, and who therefore looked abroad, -not a few selected Jersey as a residence, the cheapness of living being their attraction.

This sustained the rising consequence of Jersey; and facility of communication, that wonder working influence of our age, has come in to carry forward the increase and improvement of the island. Upwards of one third of the present population of Jersey are British residents and strangers.

The surface of Jersey slopes from N to S; has, for the most part, an undulating contour; is intersected by picturesque ravines, widening into beautiful vales; and exhibits rich ornature of wood, orchard, and meadow.

The N coast rises abruptly from the sea to elevations of fully 300 feet; the coast all round is a maze of rocks, cliffs, headlands, bays, coves, and inlets; and the S coast, in a general view, is so low as to glide into foreshore.

The chief outlying rocks are the two groups Paternosters and Dirouilles, both situated off the N.

The chief headlands are Cape Grosnez, on the NW; Pleinmont, Rondnez, and Belle-Houge Points in the N; Rozel Point, on the NE; St. Clement's Point, on the SE; and Point Corbiere, on the SW.

The chief bays are Boulay bay and Royal harbour, on the NE; St. Catherine's bay and Grouville bay, on the E; St. Aubin's bay, on the S; and St. Owen's bay, on the W.

The tides, all round, rise to a height of from 40 to 45 feet.

The rocks are all nonfossiliferous; they include some masses of amygdaloid and porphyry, which are quarried for paving and for building; they include also, in the NE, a considerable mass of hornblende and conglomerate; they include likewise, toward the SW, some schistose and argillaceous masses; but, elsewhere or prevailingly, they are granitic or syenitic, of a warm, reddish hue, and, at Mount Mado, are extensively quarried for harbour piers and for building.

The climate is very mild and genial; has, from the southern exposure of the island, a decided advantage over Guernsey, with its northern exposure; yet, perhaps, is rendered more humid, and too shaded and sheltered, by extreme abundance of wood.

Snow seldom falls, and frosts are transient. Shrubs, such as myrtles, which require protection in Devon during the winter months, require none here, and are luxuriant without it; while melons are raised without aid from artificial heat.

The soils are such as usually result from the disintegration of granites and schists; and, in genera1, possess such fertility that a tract equivalent to somewhat less than 4½ acres is sufficient for the maintenance of a large family.

But though Jersey formerly produced more corn than sufficed for its inhabitants, it does not now yield more than about two-thirds of what they consume.

Agriculture is in a backward condition, and is hindered from improvement partly by minute subdivision of property arising from the custom of gavel-kind, and partly by enhancement of the price of agricultural labour through improvement of trade and commerce.

Farms average only about 15 acres; they are wooded, and abound in orchards; and they often show as great a variety of crops on a field as is elsewhere to be seen on a large farm. Wheat, barley, parsnips, and potatoes are the principal crops; and the latter two are universally cultivated for exportation.

About one-fourth of all the arable land is occupied by apple-trees; and cider is the universal beverage of the country people, and also is largely exported.

Cows are the Norman ones known in England as Alderneys, but are larger than those usually seen in England; and they are so numerous, in their dotting of the pastures, as to lend much beauty to the landscape.

Few sheep are bred or fattened; and fat sheep, both alive and dead, are brought from England, and still more from France. Oxen, for beef, are imported from France and from Spain. Horses are small and not remarkable for beauty; but are strong, capable of bearing fatigue, and well adapted for the uses of the farmer. Hogs are numerous, and attain a great size; and the pork is good.

Game is not plentiful; and the weasel and the mole are almost the only noxious animals. Wood bounds most of the roads, and is elsewhere so diffused as to give the island a park-like appearance; while ivy is everywhere so profuse as to climb tree-trunks, wayside banks, and cottage walls, and even to creep over the rocks by the shore.

New roads intersect the island in all directions, and are wide and well formed; old roads ramify everywhere, and are extremely narrow and excessively irregular; yet no roads whatever exist in numerous dells and valleys.

The state of productive industry is best represented by the principal items respecting the occupations of males, in the Census returns of 1861. These show that there were, in that year, in Jersey, 490 landed proprietors, 1, 324 farmers or graziers, 322 near relatives of farmers, 420 farm labourers, 253 gardeners, 10 nurserymen, 33 shipowners, 1, 414 merchant-seamen, 19 pilots, 7 seaboatmen, 374 fishermen, 437 ship and boat builders, 59 sail makers, 36 house builders, 361 masons or paviors, 9 bricklayers, 908 carpenters or joiners, 188 plasterers, 21 paper hangers, 202 plumbers, painters, or glaziers, 165 cabinet makers or upholsterers, 16 chair makers, 18 carvers or gilders, 21 wheel wrights, 6 mill wrights, 24 dyers or calenderers, 11 hatters or hat makers, 259 tailors, 787 shoemakers or boot makers, 67 rope or cord makers, 10 corn merchants, 67 millers, 9 maltsters, 25 brewers, 42 wine merchants, 2 distillers or rectifiers, 4 soap boilers, 10 tallow chandlers, 3 tanners, 17 curriers, 12 brush or broom makers, 51 coopers, 9 basket makers, 3 papermanufacturers, 34 stone quarriers, 80 stone cutters or stone polishers, 78 brick makers or brick dealers, 2 earthenware manufacturers, 3 tobacco pipe makers, 20 coppersmiths, 19 tinmen or tinkers, 18 tin plate workers, 3 zinc workers, 5 brass founders, 23 iron manufacturers, 11 white smiths, 324 blacksmiths, 15 musical instrument makers, 39 watchmakers or clockmakers, 9 engine and machine makers, 10 cutlers, 59 coach makers, 40 saddlers or harness makers, and 889 labourers.

An oyster fishery is carried on, to the estimated value of about £45, 000 a year; it supplies England with a considerable portion of the oysters consumed there; it is protected by war vessels of Britain and France, watching over a defined line of international rights about 3 miles from the French coast; and it employs about 260 vessels and boats, and nearly 1, 400 men, besides about 600 or 700 women and children; but about one-half of the vessels employed in it are from Essex, Kent, and Hants. A large number of the Jersey seamen also are employed in the Newfoundland fishery.

The commercial statistics of Jersey are not separately returned; but those of all the Channel Islands may be here given. The vessels belonging to these islands, at the beginning of 1864, were 215 small sailing vessels, of aggregately 5, 793 tons; 337 large sailing vessels, of aggregately 58, 462 tons; and 5 steam vessels, of aggregately 244 tons.

The vessels which entered, in 1863, were 30 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 5, 818 tons, from British colonies; 909 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 43, 273 tons, from foreign countries; 29 4 foreign sailing vessels, of aggregately 21, 020 tons, from foreign countries; 260 British steam vessels, of aggregately 24, 886 tons, from foreign countries; and 78 foreign steam vessels, of aggregately 3, 588 tons, from foreign countries.

The vessels which cleared, in that year, were 59 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 7, 832 tons, to British colonies; 1 foreign sailing vessel, of 216 tons, to British colonies; 807 British sailing vessels, of aggregately 26, 194 tons, to foreign countries; 251 foreign sailing vessels of aggregately 14, 283 tons, to foreign countries; 1 British steam vessel, of 105 tons, to British colonies; 253 British steam vessels, of aggregately 22, 938 tons, to foreign countries; and 79 foreign steam vessels, of aggregately 3, 634 tons, to foreign countries.

The computed value of exports to the United Kingdom, in 1863, was £648, 508; and of this £300, 918 were in butter, £85, 659 in granite, £41, 794 in potatoes, £40, 395 in cows and calves, £30, 333 in confectionary, £28, 136 in eggs, and £14, 518 in apples.

The declared value of imports from the United Kingdom, in that year, was £1, 012, 872; and of this, £311, 680 were in apparel and haberdashery, £70, 833 in woollens, £39, 789 in plate, plated ware, jewellery, and watches, £38, 658 in tea, £34, 505 in hardware and cutlery, £32, 188 in coals, cinders, and culm, £23, 605 in wine, £21, 988 in furniture, cabinet and upholstery wares, and £20, 298 in beer and ale.

The principal port in Jersey, for general trade, is St. Helier; and for oysters is Gorey.

A great harbour, designated a harbour of refuge, but seemingly intended more for a naval station in the event of war, was begun to be formed some years prior to 1859, at St. Catherine's bay, northward of the middle of the E side of the island; and was designed to include two strong entrance breakwaters, and to enclose a harbour are of about a mile in length and 3 miles in circumference. The works were suspended in 1859; they had then cost £305, 000; and they were computed to require £395, 000 more for completion.

Jersey contains the towns of St. Helier, St. Aubin, and Gorey, and many hamlets. It is divided into twelve parishes, and subdivided into fifty-two vintaines or "scores, " supposed to be so designated from each having originally had twenty houses.

It has a legal constitution of its own; is governed by the Queen in council, with a governor, and a resident lieutenant-governor; and has a judicial body, called the Royal Court, and a legislature, called the States.

The Royal Court consists of the bailli or president, twelve jurats or judges, two crown officers, the vicomte or sheriff, the député vicomte or sheriff's officer, the enregistreur public, the greffier or clerk, the billetier, the tireur d'actes, six advocates, a number of ecrivains or solicitors, denonciateurs or under-sheriffs, the huissier or usher, ten prevôts, and seven serjents; and it takes cognizance of all suits above £10 for personal property, and tries criminal cases by jury.

The States consist of the lieutenant-governor, the bailiff, the twelve jurats, the rectors of the parishes, the constables of the parishes, three deputies from St. Helier parish, and eleven deputies from the other parishes. The jurats are elected for life, by the ratepayers; and the constables and the deputies are elected for three years, also by the ratepayers.

The rate is a parochial one; is levied for the poor, for roads, and other purposes; is the only tax in the island; and averages, in the country parishes, from two to six shillings on a rental equivalent to from £16 to £17 10s. sterling.

An act of the imperial parliament which does not specially name Jersey, Guernsey and the Channel Islands, is a dead letter here; but every act which does specially name them, when transmitted by the clerk of the Privy Council for registry here, has the force of law. The island is in the diocese of Winchester.

The language of the local legislature, and of proceedings in court, is French; that commonly spoken by the country people, is a barbarous dialect; and English, though sufficiently understood by all classes, is rarely spoken with purity by even the best class.

The native families have but little intercourse with the resident British ones; and they are divided, among themselves, into two factions, called the Laurel and the Rose, who live almost as much apart from each other as if they were at war.

Houses which, in the rural parts or small towns of England, would be let for £30, cannot be got in Jersey for less than £40; and ornate-cottages, of the kind which let in England for from £18 to £25, are scarcely to be had.

The pound weight here is equal to 17½ oz. avoirdupois, and the pound currency is worth 81/3 less than the pound sterling; so that, in ordinary transactions, with Jersey weight and Jersey money, £100 sterling serve the purpose of £116 13s. 4d.

Yet, excepting in wines, spirits, and other excisable articles, Jersey, as compared with England, really now presents to strangers no advantages of cheap living. Hence a decrease which took place in the population, during the ten years 1851-61, is attributed, in the Census report, not so much to any decline in the advantages of Jersey, as to the diminution of the disadvantages under which the English mainland laboured by heavy fiscal duties; which the progress of the public revenue and of free trade enabled the Chancellor of the Exchequer to remove.

Pop. in 1851, 57,020; in 1861, 55,613. Houses, 8,338.