Saturday, 22 June 2019

Midsummer Night's Magic
















This poem is about Midsummer and the special magic of that night, but it is also about reflecting on the past, and of grief and joy, of mourning and memory, and a time to take a walk in the darkness of the soul before the dawn comes.

Midsummer Night's Magic

Midsummer night, moonlight at my side
As bright day fades, a time of grief and pain;
Moonbeams caress, in gentleness provide
Memories of joy that yet will still remain
My soulmate lost, my best, my loving friend
In dead of night, a peace will never end

Midsummer night, dark walk I undertake
The country gone, the country of the past
But memory remains, of joy let nothing shake;
My sweet lost love, you shall be bright at last.
The starlight glimmers, a gentle breeze I know
Shining foam flecked waves, over sand below

Midsummer night, magic that will not depart
Despite the darkness and the tears
Redeemed is joy, the ever loving heart
Who comes to soothe my sorrow and my fears.
Such memories come, a treasure to repay
And will not be lost, or fade, or go away

Midsummer night, the planets hasten on
Jupiter rising, the Mighty King, the Lord
And soon, this night of magic will be gone
But not the memories, love's purest joys restored.
The dawn will break, when change and tears are past,
Until end of days, where we shall meet at last.

Friday, 21 June 2019

Islanders Health during the Occupation - Part 3











By way of something off the beaten track, here's the report on the health of the Islanders during the occupation, published in 1945, after the war had ended.

MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH: ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1945. 

THE LABORATORY

The Laboratory has had another busy year, though a smaller number of specimens was dealt with than during the last three years of the Occupation. The figures since 1940 are as follows









During the Occupation the Germans made extensive use of our Laboratory facilities, sending many pathological and bacteriological specimens, thus greatly increasing our work. The diphtheria epidemic caused a further increase, reaching its peak in 194; when we actually dealt with 10,263 specimens.

When one considers the many difficulties we had to keep this laboratory functioning, this is a very creditable achievement. Before the war, figures as high as 3,000 were rare, and it is probable that much of-the increase has come to stay, for in many ways the laboratory has increased both the scope and variety of its work. Medical practitioners are using its services more.

Before the Occupation we did Wassermann tests, but rarely received sufficient specimens to make the effort worthwhile. During the Occupation we substituted the Kahn test as it became quite impossible to obtain sheep's blood. The number of specimens we receive is still very small so we continue to use the Kahn test, and send the sera to a London laboratory for the Wassermann. Tests sent in this way are paid for by the Laboratory, and where necessary are free to the patients. The Medical Research Committee has laid it down that no laboratory should undertake the Wassermann test unless they receive 50 sera a week. We at the best get about ten, and some weeks one or two only.

Pathological specimens are also sent to a London laboratory as we get on average about 20 a year. No man’s opinion on a section will remain of any value unless he deals with as many a week at least.

The amount of biological chemistry done is slowly increasing as more practitioners come to realise the value of the help they can get in this way.

By increasing the scope of its work and by utilising central laboratories, we now give a pathological service the equal to that given by any laboratory serving a hospital and area of equivalent size anywhere.

In addition to its bacteriological, pathological, and biochemical services, a blood donor panel has been added to the laboratory. This did excellent service during the Occupation, and continues to do so, having recently started a small blood bank for the convenience of the Hospital and practitioners.

The Laboratory has done good work for the General Hospital, the Medical Practitioners, and Public Health.

THE DISTRICT NURSES

The Jersey District Nurses did excellent work during the occupation in spite of the curfew, the black out, barbed wire, petrol shortage, etc. In particular they carried out a very large proportion of the 7,500 anti-diphtheria innoculation done during the Occupation. The Island owes a great debt of gratitude to these devoted women.

THE DISPENSARY.

In 1940 the Dispensary was opened as a Maternity Hospital, to centralise midwifery in a period of difficult transport and to relieve the strain on the General Hospital where an increasing number of beds were being requisitioned by the Germans. The move was a great success, for, by the end of 1941, 50% of the births in the Island were taking place at the Dispensary, and since then the percentage has risen until last year, when 67%, of all births in the Island took place there.

There was a small outbreak of puerperal fever in the Dispensary in 1942, ten cases in all. There were no deaths but it was necessary to close the Dispensary for a short time for disinfection and cleaning. During that period all cases booked for- the Dispensary were cared for in Bon Air Nursing Home at the expense of the Department.

The Dispensary has become very popular, and it would be wrong, in fact impossible, to do other than keep the Dispensary on as a Maternity Hospital. This necessity has been recognised and active steps have been taken to make the arrangement permanent.

The excellent work done by the staff of the Dispensary from the Matron downwards, and their great care of their patients in a most difficult time, have been the basic reasons for the great success of the Institution.

THE SANITARY INSPECTORS.

The work of the Sanitary inspectors was rendered very difficult owing to shortage of transport. Often it required great tact to approach enemy officers in order to get things done. Nevertheless the job was tackled and carried through very successfully. Particular attention was paid to milk, which was such an important element in our dietary during those dead years. Many prosecutions were instituted for adulterating milk with water and removing cream. This crime was rendered very attractive owing to the high price of butter on the black market.

In spite of all efforts, the cleanliness of our milk deteriorated, and it was necessary again and again to advise the public to boil all milk immediately on receipt. Even then it sometimes curdled on boiling. This was due to the delay in collection caused by shortage of transport, and to the difficulty of really cleaning the cans under Occupation conditions. Unfortunately, the milk is still dirty though some improvement has been noticed.

The Germans ultimately came to recognise the value of our Inspectors' advice, and I have often seen German personnel in the office, asking for advice on the construction of sanitary arrangements in their billets and camps.

HOUSING

No houses have been built in the Island since 1939. In addition it is estimated that St. Helier has about 800 two-roomed back-to-back or lean-to type of house. If the working; classes of Jersey are to be properly housed, we must think in terms of a plan to provide up to 1,000 houses. This is a very urgent matter and ought to receive priority over all others.

How often have I seen a yard with these two-roomed one tip and one down houses, the only water supply a stand pipe at the bottom of the yard ; inadequate W.C. accommodation in the same place, usually of obsolete types and without proper flushing. Such conditions are intolerable in the present state of our knowledge of the science of hygiene. Housing in Jersey, as elsewhere, is the most urgent problem. Before we can close all these insanitary dwellings, we must have alternative accommodation.

Thursday, 20 June 2019

Beneficial Ownership Registers: What Public Access Means















Article 30(1) of the EU’s Fourth Anti-Money Laundering Directive (4AMLD) requires all EU Member States to put into national law provisions requiring corporate and legal entities to obtain and hold adequate, accurate and current information on their beneficial owner(s) in their own internal beneficial ownership register.

“It took the allied powers six months to plan and successfully carry out the D-Day landings. It took Thomas Edison two years to create the light bulb. The Crown Dependencies have today set out a three-year plan to table a discussion in parliament with no commitments and no details on whether they will comply with emerging international standards on beneficial ownership transparency.”

John Christensen, of the Tax Justice Network on the Beneficial Ownership Transparency.

But is this assessment fair? I think not.

The EU and how the Register Works

So what exactly is the EU’s position on a beneficial ownership register, and how transparent is that?

If we look at Ireland, for example, under the AML5D, the CRO will make low-level access of the Central Register data available to the public. The following information will be publicly accessible:

Name, Extent of beneficial ownership, Nationality, Country of residence Part of date of birth (month and year)

High-level access will be granted to competent authorities with a ‘legitimate interest’ including the Revenue Commissioners, law enforcement agencies (i.e. In Ireland the Financial Intelligence Unit of the Gardaí), banks including the Central Bank, credit institutions and Accountants or Lawyers undertaking customer due diligence requirements.

And how far is it in progress? It is envisaged that the public will not have access to the register until late 2019/early 2020 and that only limited information will be available.

You can’t currently register on the site until 22 June 2019 anyway.

In the portal there will be a facility, similar to the “Company Search” facility on the CRO website, where you can look up a company or society and purchase a “Company/Society Printout”.

The “Printout” will include a list of the past and present beneficial owners of the company/society and the following data in respect of each one:

A statement of the nature and extent of the beneficial interest held or control exercised. A “Company /Society Printout” is expected to cost €3.50 to buy and payment can be made by credit/debit card. The printout will be e-mailed to the address you provide within minutes.

So let’s be clear how this works. A search can be made of any company or society on the register. There is no provision to search on individuals. And when a company you wish to inspect is found, it will cost €3.50 to buy.

So although technically it is a public accessible register of beneficial owners, in fact it will not be that easy for the public to ownership by individual, only the beneficial ownership by company – and there will be a charge.

The EU considers this to be enough to be “publicly accessible”, but I’d be intrigued to know if Mr Christensen thinks likewise.

I'm not saying it is a good or bad thing, because the strength of the register I think is more in the ability of legitimate law enforcement agencies to search by name, and that is available both in Ireland and Jersey registers now.

Public does not mean anything goes

It’s not just Ireland, similar restrictions are available elsewhere. For instance:

Belgium: Members of the public have restricted access to the UBO Register and will have to identify themselves through eID, and may only search the Register using a company’s Crossroads Bank for Enterprises number or company name.

Indeed the regulations state that there are no restrictions provided in the AML Act. However, it will not be possible to perform searches on specific persons being UBO by the general public.

However, competent authorities and the Financial Intelligence Units will have the additional option of searching the register for UBO information by name of individual. And Jersey of course already supplies that to other countries law enforcement bodies worldwide.

The USA: Edison's Homeland

As a recent report notes, authorities in the United States have more information about library card holders than the owners of registered companies, according to a bipartisan group of U.S. senators behind a bill that would overhaul the country’s dated anti-money-laundering laws.

The senators, members of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, are seeking to enact The Illicit Cash Act, which would empower regulators to force shell companies to disclose their true ownership for the first time.

The senators referenced research that found the U.S. is among the easiest countries in the world in which to set up anonymous shell companies.

“To obtain a library card in any state in the U.S., the applicant must be the person who will ultimately be controlling/using the card, and a significant amount of identifying information must be provided by the person to the state in order to obtain the library card,” the report found.

“To form a company in any state in the U.S., it is not necessary to identify or provide any information about the person(s) who will ultimately be controlling the company.”

The Panama Papers have prompted more stringent regulations in the European Union including mandating member states to compile centralised registers on beneficial ownership and to make these widely – even publicly – accessible.

The draft U.S. legislation also calls for a comprehensive database of beneficial ownership to be compiled at a federal level, but only law enforcement officers would have access to the information.

And it is only at an early draft stage!

It took Thomas Edison two years to create the light bulb, but the USA is taking far longer to create a central beneficial ownership register, let alone one publicly accessible. 

Maybe before citing Edison, Mr Christensen should be honest about how slow matters are in the USA before using that analogy as a stick to beat the Crown Dependencies.

In conclusion

The timetable of the Crown Dependencies may not be the quickest – but the UK register is a shambles of unverified and often garbled information, which is certainly not adequate, accurate and current information.

Meanwhile, the USA has not even started. Where do you think the dirty money is heading?

And it’s worth adding that enforcement authorities across the globe already have speedy access to the Crown Dependencies registers in the hunt for money laundering, something which Mr Christensen has omitted from his critique.

Indeed, on tackling money laundering, it is as far advanced if not further advanced that the 28 EU member states. So “no commitments” is really hardly painting an accurate picture of the real state of affairs.

And finally....

Edison also opted for Direct Current rather than Alternative Current to supply electricity, but Nikola Tesla won the battle for the superior system.

Edison dismissed Tesla's "impractical" idea of an alternating-current (AC) system of electric power transmission, instead promoting his simpler, but less efficient, direct-current (DC) system.

It's rather like the difference between the UK and Jersey registers regarding "adequate, accurate and current information" on their registers. 

Wednesday, 19 June 2019

News from 1958




Some snippets from the Evening Post, Monday February 3rd 1958.The price for the paper, incidentally, was two-and-a-half old pence, that's the 12 pence equals one shilling pence! It's also interesting that the pages mix local and international news all together on the same page.

New reservoir
One of the headlines is entitled New Reservoir. The caption shows the site of a new reservoir for Jersey at Val de La Mare – “Work is now in progress for the foundations of the dam which will make this Reservoir the largest in the Ireland.”

Mystery Russian Cylinder
Meanwhile a container with scientific instruments enclosed, and attached to a parachute, was found on Mitcham Common in Surrey, and has been sent by the police to the meteorological office, Air Ministry, Harrow, Middlesex. The container had a flashing light on it and nearby was found a label with directions in four languages asking that if the cylinder was found it should be returned to the Soviet aeronautical Institute in Moscow.




















Other headlines
The Queen Mother visits New Zealand. Guernsey raises the price of coal. Former German soldier allowed to buy property. The Unseen Mountains of Antarctica. Yawl Badly Damaged by Fire. Bubble Gum Machine Taken. St Brelade’s Fete gives £400 to charity.

Due to the poor quality of the microfiche, I am, alas, unable to make out more than the bare headlines.

U.S. Ready with Second Satellite
Observers outside the United States missile testing base have kept close watch today as a Vanguard missile standing fully assembled is ready to launch. It is thought that it may be the vehicle for a second American space satellite. 










Death of Miss Julia Marett.
We regret to record the death which occurred today at an advanced age at her house in Jersey of Miss Julia Mary Marett for many years a prominent and valued member of the Société Jersiaise. Miss Merritt was the daughter of Sir Robert Pipon Marett who also was attorney general and sister of the late Dr RR Marett at La Haule Manor who was rector of Exeter College Oxford and a famous anthropologist.

She had a distinguished career as headmistress at a girls school in England and on her retirement return to live in Jersey at La Haule Manor.

She had in a deep and abiding love for her native island and its history and devoted a good deal of her time over long period of years to the affairs of the Société Jersiaise of which she was past president and at the time of her death a vice president. She was made a Membre D’Honneur of the Société Jersiaise in 1954. 




















Cyclist severely injured.
A woman thought to be a Mrs or Miss Gunner received a severe head injury, possibly a fracture of the skull, when she was knocked off her bicycle in David Place, near St Marks Church at about 2pm this afternoon.

It is thought that she swerved in front of an oncoming motorcycle to avoid a car door which had been opened as she passed. The car, a Ford Anglia, driven by Mr C A Raphael of St Lawrence had been travelling towards Bath Street. The motorcycle was written by Mr HC Bisson of Mont A L’abbe.

The injured woman was taken by ambulance to hospital. PC H Cole was sent to investigate. Centenier AT Knight also went to the scene.

Runaway car crashes into wall.
A car belonging to Mr RV Warren of 9 Bath Street was slightly damaged when, at about 3:30 yesterday afternoon, it slipped its brakes while parked at the top of Wellington Road, travelled about 100 yards and crashed into the wall at the entrance to De La Salle College.

The driverless car was seen by Mr RC Hodge of Friars Oak, Wellington Road and PC P Holt was sent from Police Headquarters, Rouge Bouillon, to investigate. When the handbrake was tested it was found to be efficient.

It is thought the brake might have been released by passerby - possibly a youth or child but no one was seen.

The matter was reported to Centenier HC Garden of St Saviour for further investigation.

Tuesday, 18 June 2019

Invisible, not at all wise, In light inaccessible hid from our eyes.












I’ve just been reading the following report from the JEP:

GRANTS to local charities are being funded from emergency reserves this year because the States are still in the process of reorganising how Channel Islands Lottery profits should be distributed.

A decision was made towards the end of last year by States officials to tender for the job of distributing CI Lottery money – a role that has traditionally been performed by the AJC – as part of a ‘long-stated aim to spread the benefits of Lottery funding across a wider section of the Jersey community’, a States press office spokeswoman said.

By tendering for a distributor, the States have said that it will be able to ensure fair, efficient and effective distribution of Lottery funds.


Where is the decision documented?

Firstly, a decision was made at the end of last year. We are now nearly six months down the line and clearly still without a tender being chosen. Did no one foresee it would take so long? Did the States have any contingency plans until a new tender was in place?

Actually the Gov.Je website says:

“In order to increase the public benefit from the Lottery, EDTSC is now taking action to widen the number of organisations which could potentially receive funding from it. An expression of interest exercise will be launched shortly to find partners who are able to distribute the proceeds among a wider number of organisations.”

And that is dated March 2019! A search on “tender” reveals many tendering projects but that is all that is available on this lottery tender. It is hardly surprising nothing has happened. But EDTSC (the extraordinarily long winded “Economic Development, Tourism, Sport and Culture” should have planned for that.

The Public Lotteries report for 2018, presented to the States on 19th March 2019 by the Minister for Economic Development, Tourism, Sport and Culture might have conceivable been expected to show some indication of a decision to be taken, but none is apparent.

I cannot locate either a Ministerial decision on the Gov.Je website or anything on the Channel Island Tenders portal about this tender, either current or past.

Who was responsible?

Second, who actually has taken this decision?

I cannot locate either a Ministerial decision on the Gov.Je website or anything on the Channel Island Tenders portal about this tender, either current or past.

The JEP report says “by States officials”. Are States officials now making decisions like this? And if so, where are the tender documents? This seems to have come out of the ether, and as the consequences evidently indicate some kind of lack of foresight about transitional measures (which I thought would be common sense), who is responsible for this cock-up? And are they going to be held accountable?

What is the timetable for this?

The Gov.Je notice says:

“Once distributors are selected, legislation will be taken to the States of Jersey proposing the allocation of the Jersey proceeds from the Channel Islands Lottery in 2018.”

Has anyone a clue when this is likely to be? So far, all we have is an “an expression of interest exercise” which is mentioned, but doesn’t seem to appear anywhere, and that comes in March 2019. There is no news whatsoever on how long it will take to select distributors and this seems to be just as vague as knowing where we are with the hospital project.

 By Contrast: A Model Project

Meanwhile, I am glad to see that the new Les Quennevais School is proceeding on time. Rod Bryans came in as Education Minister, laid out a timetable for all the stages in the process – in the public domain, and the tendering process appeared on the gov.je website (Jersey Gazette) and on the e-Portal at www.tenders.gov.je. That’s a model of what should happen with States projects and sets a good baseline.

Postscript:

https://procontract.due-north.com/Advert?advertId=6086eb92-b24c-e911-80f3-005056b64545&p=59ed6324-03e4-e611-80da-005056b64545&fbclid=IwAR3QiwFIxm3_jSXnyXUZ4qS9UGdTjxMSKTCse8yCQPeDCNe6IByAPvO0vfM

I searched for "tender", whereas I should have searched on the Tender site for merely "expressions of interest". The document in question (link above) says:

The Channel Islands Lottery has generated millions for good causes, transforming the lives of thousands of people in Jersey. There is a long-stated aim to spread the benefits of Lottery funding across a wider section of the Jersey community. The Government proposes to change how Lottery funding is ...tary Groups.
Expressions of interest are sought from organisations interested in distributing the proceeds of the Channel Islands Lottery in Jersey adhering to the requirements above. 

To arrange an informal discussion about the opportunity please contact – Daniel De la Cour d.delacour@gov.je

It has an "expressions of interest window" - From 22/03/2019 14:55 to 12/04/2019

Given that it has not progressed further to a formal tender, over 2 months after the end of that window, I'd say it is a complete shambles.

Links
https://jerseyeveningpost.com/news/2019/06/17/emergency-reserves-being-used-to-pay-lottery-grants/

Saturday, 15 June 2019

The Night Wanderer












A "mood" sonnet for today.


The Night Wanderer

The hoot of an owl in the dead of the night
Shadows of gravestones beneath a full moon
I walk in the strange land that borders fright
Fearful of spectres that might emerge soon

Grey fields and hedgerow beneath the moonlight
The flutter of wings as a bat catches prey
I walk in the borderland world of the night
The darkness so long before coming of day

Grey waves break on black rocks; it is a fine sight
The dark sands at midnight, all empty and bare
I walk on the promenade, past windows of light
Think of lost shipwrecks, and the spirits of air

I love the strange world of night, of the time of the dark
While most folk sleep soundly, until the singing of lark 



Friday, 14 June 2019

Islanders Health during the Occupation - Part 2














By way of something off the beaten track, here's the report on the health of the Islanders during the occupation, published in 1945, after the war had ended


Part 1 is here:
http://tonymusings.blogspot.com/2019/05/islanders-health-during-occupation.html

MEDICAL OFFICER OF HEALTH: ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1945. 

OVERDALE, LES VAUX, TUBERCULOSIS AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES.

For some years, the function of Overdale has been gradually changing. Opened primarily as an infectious disease hospital, it has gradually developed the side of its work dealing with tuberculosis until that has become by far its most important function.

During non-epidemic years, and fortunately 9 out of 10 years are non-epidemic, we can devote 45 beds to the treatment of tuberculosis in-patients. Owing to the urgent need of repairs and re-painting, this has been temporarily reduced to 22, but soon we hope to have all our wards open again.

The conditions for such patients are good, much better in fact than in many sanatoria in England.

The Out-patients' Department, originally started for the supervision of convalescents, and pneumo-horax refills, has developed into a T.B. clinic and dispensary. This department has a waiting room for patients, an office where all records and X-Ray films are kept together with all correspondence dealing with the patients, a treatment room for artificial pneumo-thorax refills, and an X-Ray room.

The Clinic is open on Mondays for men and on Saturdays for women. To it come all our old patients for re-examination and treatment, visitors requiring A.P. refills, and cases referred by local doctors for opinion and treatment if necessary.

We have an arrangement with the District Nurses whereby we can get reports on the patients' home conditions. We can also arrange for financial assistance where that is necessary. Contacts are also examined and photographs taken of their chests. The necessary bacteriological and other tests are also arranged with the aid of the Laboratory.

The X Ray plant at Overdale is used entirely for screening; all films are taken at the General Hospital. All treatment at Overdale is free. A. J.M.T. bus is under contract to take patients from the Parade, opposite the Laboratory, to Overdale at 9.15 a.m. on. Clinic days. This bus is free to patients.

When patients require special operative treatment not available on the Island, we procure beds for them in England and, where necessary, cover their expenses. During 1945, two patients were sent to England for thoracoplasty under this arrangement. We have been asked by the L.C.C. to put 5 beds at their disposal in Overdale for early cases. This has been agreed to, but we cannot start doing this until we have our full complement of beds.

The L.C.C. will pay for these patients and the money so received will cover the expenses of the patients we 
have to send to England for surgical treatment. It will also mean a periodical visit from a very highly qualified specialist who will be willing to advise us on the treatment of our cases where necessary, and help us to obtain beds for our surgical cases requiring thoracoplasty and similar operations. The arrangement should prove a great advantage to our local sufferers from T.B.

Everything possible has been done and will be done to make Overdale an up-to-date place for the treatment of T.B. The fact that the L.C.C. has asked us to place five beds at their disposal indicates what a high opinion their expert formed of the institution when he was here.

LES VAUX

During 1943, the diphtheria epidemic demanded all available beds in Overdale, thus reducing our accommodation for T.B. It was necessary to obtain other accommodation for these patients, so Les Vaux was opened as a temporary sanatorium.

It served its purpose very well and many patients were placed well on the way to recovery, whilst living under very pleasant conditions. It was an excellent place for T.B. children who rapidly recovered health and strength in its pleasant home-like surroundings.

I would have liked to have kept it going, but that was impossible, and it was closed down in September 1945. The accommodation at Les Vaux was increased by taking some of the hutments from the Chest Clinic at La Hougue Bie.

TUBERCULOSIS











The average for the fore-going five years was 1.3. the average for the ten years 1930-1939 was .88. During the five years whose rates have been given above, the death rate was 50% higher than during the previous ten years. It is curious that that the rate rose immediately, not slowly as one would expect with a slow moving disease like tuberculosis.

It is more curious still when we find that the rate for 1945 is per thousand, practically the average for the years 1930- 1939. a sudden fall in the year the Occupation ends. This is very odd, and no explanation. I can think of is very satisfactory. The rate for1945 may be a chance variation, the figures we work on are small. The difference between a rate of 1.3 and .88 is the difference indicated by a fall from 65 deaths to 44 on any given year and such variation might occur by chance. In that case we might expect a higher rate next year.

Another explanation is that normally a large percentage of our TB patients leave the Island for treatment and their deaths are recorded elsewhere.

This was impossible during the Occupation so the death rate rose, this custom was resumed as soon as we were released, and the rate fell.

The first part of this explanation seems feasible enough but it is hard to believe that many got away since V.E. Day as there is a great scarcity of beds for T.B. in England.

The Tuberculosis death rate from Pulmonary T.B. M 1945 was .77 per thousand, from other forms of T.B., .13 per thousand. All forms .9 per thousand.

Overdale admitted 41 cases of Pulmonary T.B., 2 cases of Spinal T.B., and one case of T.B. peritonitis. One case which proved not to be T.B. was sent to England as a possible cancer of the lung. 29 patients were discharged, 18 of whom were fit fear light work, and 11 unfit for work.

DIPTHERIA

In 1940 there were Amur cases of diphtheria, with no deaths. In 1941 there were no cases of diphtheria. In 1942, the disease was re-introduced from France by foreign workers brought here by the Army of Occupation. There were several cases amongst those workmen and amongst German Troops before any civilian cases occurred. By the end of 1942 there had been 66 cases, in 1943 there were 211 cases, in 1944, 46 cases, and 112 1945 a rise to 89 cases.

The total deaths 1942-1945 was 19. This gives a death rate to the end of 1941 of 4.6. The death rate has tended slightly downward since the end of 1944, probably due to the re-introduction of concentrated sera after V.E. Day, and better nutrition. The organism was of the mitis type.

Towards the end of 1942 there was a serious crisis in the supply of anti-toxin. The supply actually fell to a point when there was only enough left to treat 3 serious cases, and cases were arriving at the rate of five or six weekly. It came just in the nick of time, thanks to Dr. Le Saffre of St. Lo, the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and the International Red Cross. The serum so obtained was all of the unconcentrated type and the patients had very bad scrum rashes.

To treat a bad case often required the injection of 80 or more cubic centimetres of serum. We obtained from the Pasteur Institute large supplies of diphtheria prophylactic in the form of Anatoxin; with this we were able to immunise a large proportion of our children, and so brought the epidemic within manageable limits.

During 1945, Overdale admitted 10 cases of Scarlet Fever and three cases with a diagnosis of Scarlet which proved not to be Scarlet.

I must record my admiration for, and thanks to, the nursing and domestic staff at Overdale for their loyal and unremitting service during the Occupation.

Things at times were very difficult. The roof blew off one of the wards and fell in the football field during the big storm early in the Occupation. The Germans put guns in the grounds, and the firing of these guns brought down ceilings and frightened children.

Heating and cooking finally became almost impossible and I often saw pots of water boiling on improvised camp kitchens outside the wards in order that patients could be kept clean and have a hot drink. Through it all there was invariable cheerfulness and efficiency.

Freedom has brought staffing problems, repairs, repainting, and a drive to bring the place up-to-date, still everything goes along peacefully and the patients are well looked after.

I must also thank those who came to entertain the patients at Overdale and Les Vaux during the Occupation. Transport was difficult or non-existent, but still they came, bringing their instruments and props, and they gave the patients many a pleasant hour. The local broadcasting over the telephone service was a great help and did much to lighten the tedium of the Occupation combined with long periods of confinement to bed.